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CODE 60795
SEMESTER 1° Semester
Propedeuticità in ingresso
Per sostenere l'esame di questo insegnamento è necessario aver sostenuto i seguenti esami:
Propedeuticità in uscita
Questo insegnamento è propedeutico per gli insegnamenti:
  • Pharmacy 8452 (coorte 2022/2023)
  • ORGANIC CHEMISTRY 60795 2022
  • Pharmacy 8452 (coorte 2022/2023)
  • ORGANIC CHEMISTRY 60795 2022
  • Pharmacy 8452 (coorte 2022/2023)
  • ORGANIC CHEMISTRY 60795 2022
  • Pharmacy 8452 (coorte 2022/2023)
  • ORGANIC CHEMISTRY 60795 2022
  • Pharmacy 8452 (coorte 2022/2023)
  • ORGANIC CHEMISTRY 60795 2022
  • Pharmacy 8452 (coorte 2022/2023)
  • ORGANIC CHEMISTRY 60795 2022
  • Pharmacy 8452 (coorte 2022/2023)
  • ORGANIC CHEMISTRY 60795 2022
  • Pharmacy 8452 (coorte 2022/2023)
  • ORGANIC CHEMISTRY 60795 2022
  • Pharmacy 8452 (coorte 2022/2023)
  • ORGANIC CHEMISTRY 60795 2022
  • Pharmacy 8452 (coorte 2022/2023)
  • ORGANIC CHEMISTRY 60795 2022
  • Pharmacy 8452 (coorte 2022/2023)
  • ORGANIC CHEMISTRY 60795 2022


The study of organic chemistry is an opportunity to look into an exciting and vital science for everyday life. The foundations of this discipline create the basis for advanced studies in the fields of medical, biological, chemical, and materials sciences. Furthermore, the use of this knowledge allows us to understand some modern technologies of daily use. Through the recognition of functional groups, the three-dimensional design of molecular structures, and the interpretation of the mechanistic processes of reactions, the student will be able to obtain a theoretical training useful to face and successfully overcome the subsequent theoretical-practical teachings, such as pharmaceutical chemistry, biochemistry, drug analysis, laboratories, etc. This training also aims to provide students with the basic elements of organic chemistry necessary for the development of professional skills to be engaged in the work activities that the future pharmacy graduate envisages. 



Understanding and reasoning are the basis for learning any scientific discipline. Mastering organic chemistry requires a deep understanding of some fundamental principles and the ability to use these principles to analyze, classify and make predictions. The program aims to help understand the relationships between structure and reactivity of the main functional groups, aromatic and heteroaromatic systems. The student will have to understand the fundamental principles of the chirality of organic compounds and the importance of this principle in biological systems, as well as in the synthesis of pharmacologically active chiral substances. The mechanistic study of reactions for the synthesis of model molecules will allow the student to reason and connect the reactivity of functional groups to the three-dimensional structures of the resulting compounds avoiding the student to memorize lists of reactions disconnected from each other. The student will have to develop skills in the design of a multistage synthesis using acquired synthetic strategies for solving problems. 


Students will be directed to the study of organic chemistry to obtain a series of skills and abilities useful for completing a scientific education that will enable them to analyse, classify, explain and predict the reactivity of organic compounds. Pupils will need to know the fundamental theories in order to be able to solve organic chemistry problems through reasoning. They must be able to argue theories, master graphic skills, use correct technical language in order to demonstrate measurable learning results during written and oral tests.

At the end of the course students will be able to:
1. Use the periodic table to determine the ground state electronic configuration and bond geometries of a central atom;
2. Interpret atomistic and molecular theories to understand the strength and nature of chemical bonds;
3. Use molecular models to determine molecular geometries;
4. Predict the chemical nature (electrophile, nucleophile, acid and base) of an atom within a molecular structure;
5. Master the fundamental concepts of stereochemistry with the use of 3D models, visualization software and drawing chiral molecules on paper;
6. Visualize and orient the substituents in a molecule in space as well as being able to represent the structural variations during a multistage reaction;
7. Classify the reactivity of organic compounds and functional groups within a molecule or between different molecules;
8. Recognize the nature and acid or basic strength of a given compound by attributing the position of an acid-base balance;
9. Recognize the electrophilicity, nucleophilicity and propensity to exit of a given atom or functional group;
10. Determine the relative stability of carbocations and radicals to understand the progress of a reaction for a specific mechanism;
11. Predict whether a reaction occurs or not and by what mechanism;
12. Correctly draw the curved arrows to represent the flow of electrons in an ionic reaction and in radical processes;
13. Represent the resonance limit structures of a compound;
14. Use synthetic and retrosynthetic strategies to design drugs and molecules;
15. Understand the connections between the organic reactions studied and those that occur in nature and in cellular biology.

16. The students will be able to create multimedia products (individually or in groups) using a correct scientific language.

17.The student will be able to self-evaluate their own work and evaluate other people's work through a peer-review process.


Having passed the general and inorganic chemistry exam.



The course includes 3 weekly lectures of 2 hours each, during which all the notions relating to the organic chemistry teaching program are transmitted to the students.

Teaching materials to support the lessons (presentations, exercises, and in-depth articles) are provided to students through the aulaweb platform. Fundamental texts are recommended for the study of theory and for carrying out the exercises. However, part of the lesson is carried out on the blackboard, using digital media and molecular models to educate the student in the two- and three-dimensional design of molecules and in the carrying out of chemical reactions with the relative mechanism. To face dynamic frontal lessons, the active participation of students is required in answering questions and carrying out exercises individually or in groups. Quizzes and exercises will be available on the aulaweb platform to keep the study updated, which allows a profitable accompaniment of the lessons throughout the teaching period of organic chemistry.

Activities are planned to promote the ability to peer-review and self-evaluate the papers to promote the ability to learn to learn (basic level). The production of multimedia products is encouraged to develop functional alphabetic skills that allow the student to seek and process information, present, communicate and argue theories and practical concepts in both oral and written form (basic level).

Tips on how to study:

1) keep the study of the weekly topics updated, never let them accumulate;

2) study the material in small teaching units and make sure you understand each new section before moving on to the next;

3) solve all the problems of the chapter;

4) write during the study in a theory and exercise notebook;

5) learn by teaching and explaining (study better in a group); 6) use molecular models during the study.



1. Elements of general chemistry: electronic structure and bond

Structure of the atom and distribution of electrons in the atom. Covalent bonds (polar and non-polar). Representations of the structure of a compound. Atomic and molecular orbitals. Valence bond theory, VSEPR model, and molecular orbital theory (TOM). Hybridization of carbon and formation of single, double, and triple bonds. Hybridization of other atoms (B, O, N) and related molecular geometries. The dipole moment of a bond and dipole moment of a molecule.

2. Acids and bases: fundamental concepts in organic chemistry

Organic acids and bases. Definition of Ka and pKa. Predict the location of an acid-base equilibrium via pKa. Factors affecting the strength of an acid and its pka. Acid-base theories of Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry, and Lewis. Use of curved arrows to represent the flow of electrons involved in an acid-base reaction.

3. Introduction to organic compounds: nomenclature, physical properties, and structure

Nomenclature of alkanes and cycloalkanes, alcohols and ethers, alkyl halides, and amines. Rotation around the single sigma bond (C-C). Conformational analysis of alkanes and their rotamers. Newman's projection of the conformational isomers of a linear alkane. Ring tension of cycloalkanes. Conformation analysis of cyclohexane. Conformers of cyclohexanes, mono-, di- and trisubstituted. Cis-trans isomerism of cycloalkanes. Cyclohexanes condensed in decalin and steroid hormones.

4. Isomers: the arrangement of atoms in space

Constitutional isomers and stereoisomers. Geometric isomerism (cis-trans and E / Z) in compounds with double bonds. Concept of chirality. Chiral molecules with asymmetrical center (stereogenic center). Representation of enantiomers and R, S descriptors for chiral carbons. Fischer projection. Origin of the optical activity of chiral compounds. Rotary optical power. Molecules with multiple chiral centers (diastereoisomers and meso compounds). Separation of enantiomers (racemic mixture).

5. Alkenes: structure, nomenclature, and introduction to reactivity

Reactivity of alkenes and use of curved arrows. Mechanism of a reaction between a nucleophile and an electrophile. Thermodynamics and kinetics of a reaction.

6. The reactions of alkenes

Addition of water and halogen acids to alkenes. Stability of carbocations. Transposition of carbocations. Regioselectivity of electrophilic addition (Markovnikov's rule) and radical addition (anti-Markovnikov) reactions. Hydroboration-oxidation of alkenes. Addition of halogens to alkenes. Addition of a peroxy acid to alkenes (epoxidation). Addition of ozone to alkenes (ozonolysis). Stereochemistry of addition reactions to alkenes: regioselective, stereoselective, or stereospecific reaction.

7. The reactions of alkynes

Nomenclature, structure, and reactivity of alkynes. Electrophilic additions to alkynes: introduction to keto-enol tautomerism. Catalytic hydrogenation of alkenes and its stereochemistry. The acidity of terminal alkynes. Use of acetylide ions in organic synthesis.

8. Electronic delocalization and its effect on stability, pKa, and products of a reaction

The bonds of benzene, resonance limit structures, and resonance hybrid. Predict the stability of resonance structures. Stability of dienes, allyl, and benzyl cations. Effect of electronic delocalization on pKa. Electron donation by resonance in a substituted benzene ring. Electronic attraction by resonance from the substituted benzene ring. Electrophilic addition 1,2 and 1,4 to conjugated dienes.Aromaticity criteria and Huckel's rule. Aromaticity according to the theory of molecular orbitals (Frost's rule). Aromatic heterocyclic compounds.

9. Reactions of substitution and elimination of alkyl halides

Mechanism of a bimolecular (SN2) and monomolecular (SN1) nucleophilic substitution reaction. Factors influencing SN2 and SN1 reactions. Elimination reactions of alkyl halides (E2 and E1). Stereochemistry and competitions between SN2, SN1, E2 and E1 reactions.

10. Reactions of alcohols, ethers, epoxides, and amines

Nucleophilic substitution reactions of alcohols. Elimination reaction (E1 and E2) of alcohols (dehydration). Stereochemistry of the dehydration reaction. Oxidation of alcohols. Nucleophilic substitution reactions of ethers and epoxides. Formation of cis and trans diols. Hofmann elimination reaction of a quaternary ammonium ion.

11. Organometallic compounds

Preparation of organolithium and organomagnesium. Palladium-catalyzed coupling reactions (Suzuki reaction).

12. Radicals

The relative stability of radicals. Radical halogenation of alkanes (chlorination and bromination). Radical addition of alkenes (anti-markonikov addition). Free radical reactions in biological systems and natural radical inhibitors.

13. Reactions of carboxylic acids and derivatives of carboxylic acids

Structure, physical properties and reactivity of carboxylic acid derivatives (acyl chloride, anhydride, ester, and amide).

14. Reactions of aldehydes and ketones

Reactivity of carbonyl compounds. Addition of strong and weak nucleophiles to the carbonyl carbon. Formation of imines and enamines. Formation of acetals and hemiacetals as protecting groups of the carbonyl group. Wittig reaction. Nucleophilic addition to a,b-unsaturated aldehydes and ketones in the presence of weak (conjugated-1,4 addition) and strong (direct 1,2-addition) nucleophiles.

15. Reactions to  a carbon

The acidity of hydrogen to carbonyl derivatives. Keto-enol tautomerism. Halogenation of carbon a of aldehydes and ketones. Formation of the kinetic and thermodynamic enolate ion. Carbon alkylation with catalyzed base. Stork reaction. Aldol addition for the formation of a b b-hydroxy aldehyde or a b-hydroxy ketone. Cross aldol addition. Claisen condensation. 

16. Reactions of benzene and substituted benzenes

Nomenclature of monosubstituted benzenes. Aromatic electrophilic substitution reactions (SEAr): halogenation, nitration, sulfonation, acylation and Friedel-Crafts alkylation). Chemical transformations of substituents on the benzene ring. Effect of substituents on the reactivity of a benzene ring. Effect of substituents on the orientation of a SEAr.

17. Pentatomic and hexatomic aromatic heterocyclic compounds.

Aromaticity of pyrrole, furan, thiophene and pyridine. Heterocyclic amines of biological importance: histidine, histamine, porphyrin, purines and pyrimidines. Paal-Knorr synthesis of pyrrole, furan and thiophene. 

18. The organic chemistry of carbohydrates

Classification of carbohydrates: aldoses and ketosis. Annotation D and L to describe the configurations of carbohydrates. Pyranose sugars (six-term cycles) and furanose sugars (5-term cycles). Anomeric carbon of glucose and the hemiacetal structures of a-D-glucose and b-D-glucose. Chair conformation of D-glucose.

19. Amino acids

Configuration of amino acids. Methods of Strecker for synthesis of amino acids.


·       L. Mayol, E. Bedini, N. Borbone, L. De Napoli, A: Galeone, M. Menna, G. Oliviero, G. Piccialli INTRODUZIONE ALLA CHIMICA ORGANICA DI BROWN-POON -  Ed. EdiSES

·       W. H. Brown, B. L. Iverson, E.V. Anslyn, C.S. Foote CHIMICA ORGANICA, Ed. EdiSES

·       P. Y. Bruice, CHIMICA ORGANICA, Ed. EdiSES

·       M. Loubon, CHIMICA ORGANICA  Ed. EdiSES

·       J. McMurry, CHIMICA ORGANICA, Ed. Piccin

·       R. T. Morrison, R. N. Boyd "CHIMICA ORGANICA" (Casa Editrice Ambrosiana)

·       Botta et all, CHIMICA ORGANICA, Ed. Edi-Ermes

·       Solomons Fryhle, CHIMICA ORGANICA, Ed. Zanichelli

·       Fessenden & Fessenden, CHIMICA ORGANICA, Ed. Piccin




The lessons start at the end of september as indicated by the oficial calendar. 

Class schedule

L'orario di tutti gli insegnamenti è consultabile all'indirizzo EasyAcademy.



Written exam with open and/or multiple-choice questions. A self-correction phase will be introduced in your written exam by following the solution to the exercises carried out by the teacher on the blackboard. Subsequently, an evaluation of the papers will be carried out among the students (peer review). The self-evaluation process encourages reflection on one's work for responsible self-correction. Peer review stimulates discussion and in-depth analysis of the topics covered. After the correction, students will be informed of the score obtained and can ask for explanations. Those who obtain a pass will proceed to the oral exam.

During the course, an additional (optional) individual or group activity will be required to produce a video (maximum 10-12 minutes) on a topic covered in the classroom. Through the evaluation of the video, the transversal skills (communicative, functional, and social) of the student or the work group will be determined. The videos will be peer-evaluated through an evaluation rubric that will allow them to delve deeper into topics covered by other students.


The written exam will include theoretical questions and organic chemistry exercises to be completed in three hours. The oral exam requires the student to be able to answer theoretical questions and solve exercises through which it will be possible to evaluate knowledge of the contents, quality, and organization of the presentation.

The control tools provided in the teaching and examination methods, which accompany the teaching-learning process, aim to assess the students' levels of knowledge, skills, and competencies.

Exam schedule

Data Ora Luogo Degree type Note
03/04/2024 10:00 GENOVA Scritto
17/06/2024 10:00 GENOVA Scritto
08/07/2024 10:00 GENOVA Scritto
22/07/2024 10:00 GENOVA Scritto
16/09/2024 10:00 GENOVA Scritto
03/02/2025 10:00 GENOVA Scritto
17/02/2025 10:00 GENOVA Scritto


 PRO3 - Soft skills - Imparare a imparare base 1 - A
PRO3 - Soft skills - Imparare a imparare base 1 - A
 PRO3 - Soft skills - Alfabetica base 1 - A
PRO3 - Soft skills - Alfabetica base 1 - A