CODE  80757 

ACADEMIC YEAR  2024/2025 
CREDITS 

SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINARY SECTOR  FIS/07 
LANGUAGE  Italian 
TEACHING LOCATION 

SEMESTER  2° Semester 
TEACHING MATERIALS  AULAWEB 
OVERVIEW
The class provides an overview of the main concepts and laws of physics in the field of mechanics, thermodynamics and electrical phenomena. Laboratory experiences let the student to perform simple physical measurements by addressing the quality of the results as common in any scientific discipline
AIMS AND CONTENT
LEARNING OUTCOMES
The lab part aims at supplying the student with the capability of performing measurements, analyzing data and drawing appropriate conclusions taking into account experimental errors.
AIMS AND LEARNING OUTCOMES
To learn the basic concepts and techniques of classical physics and which are at the basis of much of the phenomenon of scientific disciplines.
To gain the ability to solve quantitatively simple physical problems
To the ability to perform laboratory measurements by evaluating the quality and validity of the collected data
TEACHING METHODS
Frontal lessons and laboratory experiences
SYLLABUS/CONTENT
Physical quantities  units of measurement  unit conversion  dimensional analysis  vectors  graphic representation  sum and difference between vectors  Cartesian, polar (2D) and spherical (3D) representation of vectors.
Sum and difference between vectors in Cartesian representation  vector form  mutiplication of vectors with scalar and other vectors
Material point kinematics  Material point position and displacement  Hourly motion time  Trajectory  Average and instantaneous speed  Scalar speed and trajectory length  Instant acceleration and its representation in the intrinsic reference system.
1D motion: uniform straight motion, motion at cosntant acceleration  the relation between space and speed in the straight motion at constant acceleration
2D motion: motion of the graves (trajectory, outline), uniform circular motion (angular velocity, period, frequency, 1D harmonic motion).
The 3 Principles of Material Point Dynamics: Inertial Reference Systems, Force and Newton's Law, Principle of Action and Reaction. Application to simple system
Universal gravitation law, weight strength and applications. Vincolar reactions: flat plane.
The laws of frightening friction  sloped plane with friction.
Mass + spring systems as an example of harmonic oscillator. Hooke's Elasticity and Law.
Work of a force  kinetic energy theorem  conservative and nonconservative forces  potential energy  mechanical (total) energy of the material point conservation and nonconservation of mechanical energy  applications. Average and instantaneous power.
Electric charge  Conductors and insulators  Electrostatic forces  Electric field and electric potential  Electric current  Electric circuits  Power supplies and delivered power  Electric resistance  Ohmic conductors  The 3 Ohms laws  Joule effect and law.
DC Current Circuits  Series and Parallel Resistors  Realistic Real Power Generator Model (Internal Resistance)  Capacitors and Capacities.
Capacitors as Circuit Elements: Series and Parallel Capacitors  RC Circuits (Charging and Discharging temporal curve).
Thermodynamics: point of view and objectives, thermodynamic systems, equilibrium states and status variables. Temperature and thermometers  zero principle  gas thermometer  pressure (absolute and relative).
Perfect gas and its state equation. Heat as a form of energy  calorie and its mechanical equivalent  thermal capacity  specific heat  molar heat  Dulong & Petit law.
Phase change  latent melting and vaporizing heat. Bunsen Calorimeter as a Application.
The concept of thermodynamic system , environment and universe. Classification of thermodynamic transformation types. Work performed by a system.
The first principle of thermodynamics: internal energy as a potential thermodynamic. Properties of internal energy, the internal gas energy of the perfect gas. Molar heat of the perfect gas under pressure and constant volume  Mayer's report.
Heat transformations in mechanical work: the performance of a thermodynamic cycle. Yield of a thermodynamic cycle according to the 2nd principle (Carnot theorem).
Formulations of the second principle: KelvinPlanck and Clausius. Entropy as a measurement of disorder and as a potential thermodynamic.
Definition and properties of entropy. Formulation of the second principle by entropy. The effects on the universe's entropy of the irreversible transformations of a system. Examples of calculation of entropy variations in simple systems.
Observation and measurement methods
Definition of uncertainty or experimental error. Best value of a measurement. Maximum errors and statistical errors. Standard deviation and standard error. Linear propagation of maximum errors. Gaussian distribution of measurements. Significance of Confidence Interval. Correlation between measurements and regression line.
Experience no. 1. Measurement of lengths and verification the law of conjugated points for a thin lens
Experience no. 2. Measurement of electrical potential difference, currents and resistances.
Experience no. 3. Temperature and thermal capacity measurements.
Data Processing: Use of a dedicated program for statistical analysis and adaption of mathematical functions to experimental data
RECOMMENDED READING/BIBLIOGRAPHY
M.Celasco  Lineamenti di Fisica Medica per Medicina e discipline a interesse biologico – ECIG (Genova)
J.R. Taylor – Introduzione all’analisi degli errori – Zanichelli ed.
TEACHERS AND EXAM BOARD
LESSONS
LESSONS START
March 1, 2018
EXAMS
EXAM DESCRIPTION
Written and oral.
ASSESSMENT METHODS
The exam consists of a written test followed by an oral. The written test consists in performing some exercises, the solution of which is evaluated not only in terms of the final answer, but also according to the logic and the steps in the solution itself. For the laboratory part the students must produce an individual report for each supported experience. The reports shall be discussed during the oral exam.