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CODE 66904
ACADEMIC YEAR 2024/2025
CREDITS
SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINARY SECTOR MED/04
LANGUAGE Italian
TEACHING LOCATION
  • GENOVA
SEMESTER 2° Semester
MODULES Questo insegnamento è un modulo di:
TEACHING MATERIALS AULAWEB

OVERVIEW

he lessons contained in the course of General Pathology and Immunology are intended to provide a biotechnology student with a general picture of the defense methods implemented by our immune system against etiologic agents and neoplasms. The course also analyzes the pathogenetic mechanisms of inflammatory response and neoplastic transformation.

AIMS AND CONTENT

LEARNING OUTCOMES

In-depth knowledge about the main molecular and cellular mechanisms of the immune response (natural and adaptative) against pathogens and tumors. Knowledge about hypersensitivity reactions and related conditions.

AIMS AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

The part of General Pathology gives in-depth knowledge on the inflammatory process The concepts of angioflogosis and histoflogosis will be defined and characterized. Important aspects of general oncology will be addressed, such as the definitions of oncogene, tumor marker and metastasis. The classification of tumors on the basis of behavior, histogenesis, grading and staging will be defined.

About Immunology, the physiology of the immune system and the peculiar feature of innate and adaptive immune response will be deeply characterized. Finally, some of the principal pathological aspects of immune system will be described.

TEACHING METHODS

The topics are explained by the teacher with the help of PowerPoint slides that can be shared on Aulaweb. However, it is always recommended to use a textbook to broaden the overall vision of the topics.

Exceptionally, lessons can be held remotely using the Teams platform.

Any student with documented Specific Learning Disorders (SLD), or with any special needs, shall reach out to the Lecturer(s) and to the dedicated SLD representative in the Department before class begins, in order to liase and arrange the specific teaching methods and ensure proper achievement of the learning aims and outcomes.

SYLLABUS/CONTENT

MOLECULAR PATHOLOGY

General etiology:

The main pathogenic effects of radiation and chemicals.

The inflammatory process:

Definition and causes of angioflogosis

Active and passive hyperemia: causes and consequences

Inflammatory oedema: causes and different exudates

Cellular and plasmatic mediators

Histoflogosis: pathogenesis and classification

Tissue repair

Hints on tuberculosis and syphilis

General oncology:

Modern definition of neoplasia

Cancer cells: atypical morphology, metabolism and behavior

The concept of tumor marker

Initiation, promotion and progression in carcinogenesis

Metastasis: definition and implications of tumor spread

Oncogenes: definition of and their mechanisms of activation

Hints on genetic predisposition to cancer

Causes of cancer: physical, chemical and biological factors

Classification of tumors on the basis of: behavior (malignant/benign), histogenesis, grading and staging

 

IMMUNOLOGY

The Immune System:

Cells and Tissues of the Immune System

General features of the Innate and Adaptive  Immune response

The Innate Immunity Receptors. The Complement System 

Natural Killer Cells (NK). The Innate Lymphoid Cells (ILC).Dendritic Cells (Myeloid and Plasmacitoid)

The Adaptive Immune Response. Clonal selection Theory

Origin and maturation of T and B lymphocytes. The Antigen receptors gene rearrangement (Immunoglobulin and T Cell receptors)

The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) . The antigen processing and presentation to T Lymphocytes

Activation of T Lymphocytes. Effector mechanisms of Cell mediated Immunity. Cytotoxic and Helper T cells subpopulations

B cell activation and Antibody production. The effector mechanisms of Humoral Immunity

The Cytokines

Immunity to Pathogens: 

The Hypersensitivity Reactions

The immunity to tumors

RECOMMENDED READING/BIBLIOGRAPHY

Molecular Pathology: G.M. Pontieri, Elementi di patologia generale per i corsi di Laurea in Professioni Sanitarie. III Edizione PICCIN.

Immunology: P.Parham, Il sistema Immunitario, EdiSes; AK Abbas, AH Lichtmann, Le basi dell’Immunologia, ELSEVIER.

TEACHERS AND EXAM BOARD

LESSONS

LESSONS START

Second semester.

Class schedule

The timetable for this course is available here: Portale EasyAcademy

EXAMS

EXAM DESCRIPTION

The exam takes place orally in the presence of the teachers of the disciplines concerned.

The student answering to the questions formulated by the teachers must demonstrate to be able to critically discuss all the topics covered by the application.

The exam could be carried in out remotely online mode using the Teams platform.

ASSESSMENT METHODS

Verification of learning through the oral examination allows students to verify the actual acquisition of the expected learning outcomes.

To pass the exam, the student must demonstrate:

- to know the etiological bases and the pathogenetic mechanisms of human diseases and to know how to analyze the main cellular and molecular aspects;

- understand the different immunological mechanisms involved in the immune response and some of the pathologies responsible for defects in the functioning of the immune system (Hypersensitivity reactions).