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CODE 66902
Propedeuticità in ingresso
Per sostenere l'esame di questo insegnamento è necessario aver sostenuto i seguenti esami:
Propedeuticità in uscita
Questo insegnamento è propedeutico per gli insegnamenti:
  • Biotechnology 8756 (coorte 2023/2024)
MODULES Questo insegnamento è composto da:


The teachings contained in the Microbiology, General Pathology and Immunology course aim to provide the Biotechnology student with a general framework on pathogenic microorganisms and on the mechanisms through which the main causes of diseases (of biological, chemical and physical origin) cause damage to our organism. Furthermore, the course illustrates the different strategies implemented by the immune system, with particular reference to the dynamics of the inflammatory response and neoplastic transformation. Laboratory experiences are added to the lessons, in order to allow students to apply some theoretical principles learned.



Knowledge of the structural and functional characteristics of bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites, of the relationships between microorganisms and host and of the pathogenetic mechanisms. Knowledge of the mechanisms of action of drugs with antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal and antiparasitic activity, and of the related resistance mechanisms. Principles of microbiological diagnostics.
Knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the inflammatory reaction and neoplastic transformation. Main causes and consequences of both diseases. Knowledge of defense mechanisms (cellular and molecular basis of the innate and adaptive immune response) against pathogens and tumors. Knowledge of pathologies due to defects in the functioning of the immune system (hypersensitivity reactions).


Knowledge of fundamental differences between multicellular organisms and microorganisms, and between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, basic and ancillary structures of bacterial cells, genetic and peculiarities of bacterial cells, bacterial spores in general, and spore forming bacteria causing human disease. Knowledge of differences between saprophytic and parasite bacteria and the existence of exogenous and endogenous infections, the direct and indirect bacterial pathogenic mechanisms.

Knowledge of general, direct and indirect microbiological diagnostics, bacteriological diagnostics, antibacterial drugs, bacterial resistance to antibiotics, mechanisms of genetic onset and phenotype. Knowledge of major protozoa and yeasts. of medical interest and related diagnostic modes

Knowledge of structure of viruses in general and DNA and RNA viruses in particular, of replication and viral pathogenicity. Knowledge of viral diagnostics, direct and indirect. Knowledge of non-pathogenic parasitic bacteria, their nomenclature and localization in different districts of the human body. Knowledge of medical classification of pathogenic bacteria, viruses, protozoa and yeasts of medical interest.

Knowledge of vaccine prescriptions, classification and microbiology meaning.

The part of General Pathology gives in-depth knowledge on the inflammatory process The concepts of angioflogosis and histoflogosis will be defined and characterized. Important aspects of general oncology will be addressed, such as the definitions of oncogene, tumor marker and metastasis. The classification of tumors on the basis of behavior, histogenesis, grading and staging will be defined.

About Immunology, the physiology of the immune system and the peculiar feature of innate and adaptive immune response will be deeply characterized. Finally, some of the principal pathological aspects of immune system will be described.


Frontal lessonsand laboratory.



Basic differences between multi-cellular organisms and microorganisms, and between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells

Bacterial cell structure

Peculiar genetics and metabolism of bacterial cells

Bacterial spores

Saprophytic and parasite bacteria. Exogenous and endogenous infections

Direct and indirect bacterial pathogenicity

General and bacteriology microbiological diagnostics

Antibacterial drugs and resistances

Classification and structure of protozoa of medical interest

Classification and structure of yeasts of medical interest

Viral structure

Viral replication

Viral pathogenicity and viral diagnosis. Vaccine prescriptions

Classification of non-pathogenic human bacteria and related human districts

Medical classification of main pathogenic bacteria patogeni, viruses , protozoa and yeasts



- The inflammatory process

Definition and causes of angioflogosis

Active and passive hyperemia: causes and consequences

Inflammatory oedema: causes and different exudates

Cellular and plasmatic mediators

Histoflogosis: pathogenesis and classification

Tissue repair

Hints on tuberculosis and syphilis


-General oncology

Modern definition of neoplasia

Cancer cells: atypical morphology, metabolism and behavior

Main concepts of tumor marker

Initiation, promotion and progression in carcinogenesis

Metastasis: definition and implications of tumor spread

Oncogenes: definition of and their mechanisms of activation

Hints on genetic predisposition to cancer

Causes of cancer: physical, chemical and biological factors

Classification of tumors on the basis of: behavior (malignant/benign), histogenesis, grading and staging



The Immune System: Cells and Tissues of the Immune System.

General features of the Innate and Adaptive  Immune response.

The Innate Immunity Receptors. The Complement System. 

Natural Killer Cells (NK). Innate lynphoid cells (ILC). Dendritic Cells (Myeloid and Plasmacitoid).

The Adaptive Immune Response. Clonal selection Theory. 

Origin and maturation of T and B lymphocytes. The Antigen receptors gene rearrangement (Immunoglobulin and T Cell receptors)

The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) . The antigen processing and presentation to T Lymphocytes.

Activation of T Lymphocytes. Effector mechanisms of Cell mediated Immunity. Cytotoxic and Helper T cells subpopulations

B cell activation and Antibody production. The effector mechanisms of Humoral Immunity

The Cytokines.

Immunity to Pathogens. The Hypersensitivity Reactions. The immunity to tumors


Microbiology: Through computer support, students are given lectures written by the teacher, summarizing lessons delivered.

Molecular Pathology: G.M. Pontieri, Elementi di patologia generale per i corsi di Laurea in Professioni Sanitarie. III Edizione PICCIN.

Immunology: P.Parham, Il sistema Immunitario, EdiSes; AK Abbas, AH Lichtmann, Le basi dell’Immunologia, ELSEVIER.




March 1, 2018



The exam takes place orally in the presence of the teachers of the disciplines concerned.
The student answering to the questions formulated by the teachers must demonstrate to be able to critically discuss all the topics covered by the application.

The oral examination consist in a 30 minutes interview in the presence of the Course teachers. During the examination the student must demonstrate the ability to critically discuss all the topics covered in the questions. Through the discussion of different topics, the committee verifies the fulfillment of the expected learning outcomes.

At the end of the oral examination, teachers elaborate a mark deriving from the weighted average of the partial marks and from an overall judgment/evaluation of the student.

Available dates for examination will be 2 for the winter session (January-February) and 5 for the summer session (June-September).

In order to attend the oral examination, students will have to register on the website ( at least four days before the examination date. 


In order to pass the exam, the student must demonstrate:

- to know the structural and functional characteristics of the main pathogenic microorganisms;

- to know the mechanism of action of drugs with antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal and antiparasitic activity, and the related resistance phenomena. 

- to know the etiological basis and the pathogenic mechanisms of human diseases and how to analyze their main cellular and molecular aspects;

- to know the different mechanisms involved in the immune response and  the diseases associated to the dysfunction of the immune system ( hypersensitivity reactions).

The following items will contribute to the final mark:

- competence in the subject and ability to critically discuss the requested topics;

- accuracy, clarity, and synthesis;

- correct use of terminology.