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CODE 106573
SEMESTER 1° Semester


The teaching addresses the issue of surveying in the archaeological field using geomatic techniques, applied to the different phases of the entire measurement process, from planning and execution of the survey campaign, to its processing and metric representation. The operational phases will be addressed in a dedicated laboratory that will offer the possibility of integrating traditional survey experiences with the potential of the geomatic approach.



The course provides the fundamental theoretical-methodological tools necessary for topographic surveying and monitoring in local areas using traditional techniques, GPS / GNSS satellite, laser scanners and photogrammetry (also from drones), addressing the main methods of survey and cartographic framing in the compliance with reference systems. Particular attention will be devoted to developing skills in processing observations for the control of the measurement campaigns carried out and the results obtained from them.


The teaching provides the necessary sensitivity and attention for an approach to geomatic surveying and monitoring in the archaeological field.
Starting from the primary needs to achieve the expected results, the main criteria useful for setting up, carrying out, processing, analyzing and representing the object of study are identified.
The main techniques and operating methodologies made available by geomatics are addressed as integrated surveying and monitoring tools.
The definition of the reference systems, used to georeference the object of the survey, and the principles of cartographic representation, in which the object of the survey is framed, are presented in a descriptive and sufficiently general way to provide the necessary attention.
Elements of treatment of the observations are addressed to provide the useful bases for a sensitivity to the control of the measurement campaigns, their processing and the evaluation of the obtained results, identifying the most appropriate precisions and measurement schemes in compliance with the required accuracies.
Some methods of representation and description of the survey provide a first approach to the usability of the archaeological surveys carried out.

At the end of the teaching, the student will acquire the principles necessary to set up, develop, process, analyze and represent the object of study, which must be able to carry out independently for simple applications and understand the quality of the entire process, as well as to describe it with property of expression and correct vocabulary. 


Teaching will also develop the following soft skills and competencies (soft-skills):
- teamwork with a collaborative and constructive attitude;

- strategic thinking and critical thinking;

- effective communication and argumentative skills,

which will enable the relevant Open badges to be obtained:
- functional literacy competency - advanced level    

- personal competence - advanced level    

- social competence - advanced level    

- learning to learn skills - advanced level    

- competence in project creation - advanced level


The teaching includes theoretical lessons (about 40 hours) and exercises (about 20 hours).

The lessons are held in Italian but bibliographical references in English are available.

Lessons are held in the classroom and can only be attended in person. Attendance, although not compulsory, is recommended.

Details and teaching material are available on the AulaWeb course page "GEOMATICS FOR ARCHEOLOGY (LM) - 106573"

Students with certified DSA, disabilities or other learning disorders are invited to contact the teacher and the School/Department's relevant officer at the beginning of the course, to agree on possible teaching arrangements that, while respecting the teaching objectives, take into account individual learning methods.


Main survey methodologies available today
Analysis and characteristics (advantages and limitations) of the main methods of traditional topographic survey, GPS / GNSS satellite, laser scanner and photogrammetry.

Main cartographic framing needs
Reference systems and cartographic representation, needs and methods for framing the survey

Traditional topographic surveys
Metric survey techniques of the territory by means of a total station
Total station: constituent parts and conditions of rectification, verification and eventual rectification of the instrument, observables (azimuthal directions, zenith directions, distances)
Operating modes and plane-altimetric survey schemes, first consistency checks of observations

GPS / GNSS satellite survey methodology
General description of the system and operating principles
Survey campaign in support of satellite positioning services for surveys in Network Real Time Kinematic (NRTK)

Laser scanner survey
Operating principles, type of instruments and achievable accuracies
Limits and potential of the system

Photogrammetric survey
The photogrammetric process, topographic support, processing and restitution procedures
Obtainable accuracy, applications also from drone and photogrammetric products

Elements of treatment of observations
Measurement process and effects caused by different types of errors
Description of a measurement process, statistical variable and random variable, concept of mean and variance and their descriptive meaning, concept of probability
Concept of transformation of variables and their description
Redundancy of observations and concept of compensation through least squares estimation criteria
Particular attention will be devoted to checking the carried out measurement campaigns and the obtained results.


Lecture notes and material provided by the teacher to the students (in Italian language) using AulaWeb.

Texts for consultation (in English):

Blachut T. J., Chrzanowski A., Saastamoinen J. H.: Urban Surveying and Mapping. Springer – Verlag, 1979, ISBN 978-1-4612-6147-6

Hofmann-Wellenhof B., Lichtenegger H, Collins J.: Global Positioning System - Theory and Practice. Springer&Verlag, Vienna

Leick A.: GPS Satellite Surveying, John Wiley & Sons Inc., New Jersey, USA, ISBN 0-471-05930-7

Mikhail E. M.: Observations and Least Squares. University Press of America, Lanham, MD, 1976.


Texts for consultation (in Italian):

Barzaghi R., Pinto L .: Elements of topography and treatment of observations. Ed.CityStudi, Milan, 2014, ISBN 978-88-251-7390-1

Cina A .: From GPS to GNSS (Global Navigation Satelite System) - For Geomatics. Ed.Celid, Engineering Tools Series, Turin, 2014, ISBN 978-88-6789-020-0.

Manzino A.M .: Topography Lessons, Ed. Otto, Turin, 2001





Classes are scheduled to begin during the week of Oct. 16, 2024 according to the schedule that will be posted on the course website:


Class schedule

The timetable for this course is available here: Portale EasyAcademy



The examination consists of an oral test, with presentation (via slides) and discussion of the application carried out in small groups (2 to 4 persons), complete with critical analysis using quality control procedures of the campaigns carried out and the obtained results, like the work were delivered to the commitmenter.

Knowledge of the theoretical-practical concepts of the teaching as well as the ability to critically analyse the entire treated process will be assessed in the examination.



The oral examination will assess knowledge of the theoretical concepts of the teaching, technical language property, as well as the ability to critically analyse what has been worked on.
Therefore the final grade will take into account the quality of the presentation (relating to the processing techniques employed, the analyses carried out, the strategies for solving any problems encountered), the critical discussion of the results carried out, the expository capacity and knowledge of the theoretical concepts.



The technical report is to be carried out in small groups (consisting of 2-3 students) and will have to face the different phases of the design, execution and processing of the integrated survey, carried out by means of photogrammetry integrated with laser scanner, with topographic support carried out by means of a total station / GNSS.
Particular attention must be paid to:
- planning of the integrated survey campaign, seeking consistency between the resolutions of the different techniques according to the scale of representation;
- checking the measurement campaigns carried out and the obtained results, both by analyzing the processing phases of the different techniques and by comparing them with external information, to understand the obtained level of precision.

It is preferable, but it is not mandatory, that the group takes the examination at the same exam round.
It is requested that the presentation slides of the technical report are deliverde during the examination, either by sending them by email or by delivering them on a informatic medium (CD, DVD or USB stick).


Agenda 2030 - Sustainable Development Goals

Agenda 2030 - Sustainable Development Goals
Quality education
Quality education
Gender equality
Gender equality
Reduce inequality
Reduce inequality
Sustainable cities and communities
Sustainable cities and communities
Life on land
Life on land
Partnerships for the goals
Partnerships for the goals


 PRO3 - Soft skills - Alfabetica avanzato 1 - A
PRO3 - Soft skills - Alfabetica avanzato 1 - A
 PRO3 - Soft skills - Personale avanzato 1 - A
PRO3 - Soft skills - Personale avanzato 1 - A
 PRO3 - Soft skills - Sociale avanzato 1 - A
PRO3 - Soft skills - Sociale avanzato 1 - A
 PRO3 - Soft skills - Imparare a imparare avanzato 1 - A
PRO3 - Soft skills - Imparare a imparare avanzato 1 - A
 PRO3 - Soft skills - Creazione progettuale avanzato 1 - A
PRO3 - Soft skills - Creazione progettuale avanzato 1 - A