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CODE 73160
SEMESTER 1° Semester
MODULES Questo insegnamento è un modulo di:



Understanding of the fundamental principles of flow cytometry and ability to apply it in its methodological choice. Sample preparation methods for flow cytometric analysis, coming from all possible tissues. Selection of appropriate controls, analysis of results and management of errors.
Provide the ability to correctly use a flow cytometer analyzer or one capable of selecting cells (FACS sorter).
Knowledge of the principles of Cell Sorting
Provide the ability to set up panels and masks, even complex ones, for data acquisition and analysis for multiparametric flow cytometry in the context of diagnostic-clinical and/or transactional research projects
Quality management systems in healthcare services and laboratories
UNI EN ISO standards
ISO, reference standards 
Clinical risk
Error handling


Discipline of: "Quality Management Systems"

The course presents the main aspects of quality management within healthcare processes. Numerous examples are analyzed and presented, which allow identifying the main causes of deviation from the expected quality.

The educational objectives for the student are:

knowledge, understanding and application of quality control methodologies
knowledge of the rules governing quality control and management in the health sector.

Discipline of: "Cytofluorimetry techniques"

Attendance and active participation in training activities (in the classroom and, when possible, in the laboratory) will allow students to:

know the basic parts of a flow cytometer
know how to use a flow cytometer
knowing how to choose the best performing reagents on the machine that will be used
be able to understand and build a diagnostic or applied research panel of multiparametric flow cytometric analysis
know how to solve cytometric problems
be able to do analysis on an acquired cytometric file


Frontal lessons in the classroom with video projections of the teacher's slides or, in the event of a health emergency, carried out remotely.

The lessons aim at the constant involvement of the students and at the technical-scientific debate


Integrated course of "Applied Medical Technical Sciences"

Discipline of: "Quality Management Systems" - Lecturer: Nidia Sofia Diaz Gaitan

Evolution of Quality

The leadership Customer orientation
Understand and improve Processes
The Deming Cycle
The Ligurian model governing the accreditation of healthcare facilities

Institutional accreditation
The Manual of the Liguria Region
Accreditation and Quality
ISO organizational models

Reference standards
UNI EN ISO 9001:2015 standard
Quality Management System Audits

How to conduct an Audit
Dynamic systems for process improvement
Verification of the effectiveness of corrective actions
Elements of Clinical Risk Management

The error
human behavior
Error Classification and Management
Clinical risk management tools: Clinical Audits, Incident Reporting, F.M.E.A. and R.C.A.

Discipline of: "Cytofluorimetry techniques" - Lecturer: Daniele Reverberi

Flow cytometry: Introduction, meaning and recommended bibliography
Brief history of technology
Fluorescence and fluorochromes: principles and functioning, general notions on dyes for nucleic acids and proteins
The fundamental parts of the machine and the theoretical principles applied: fluidics - principles of hydrodynamics applied; optics - light, theory and materials; electronics - data acquisition, analysis and representation.
Instrument performance procedures: instrument control and analysis threshold setting
Sample preparation: basic knowledge for sample preparation; treatment and analysis of samples from solid tissues.
Multiparametric flow cytometry: panel preparation and setting of antibodies and fluorochromes
Problem solving: spill-over and compensation, autofluorescence, quenching and bleaching
Basic management and analysis of the generated data: main concepts connected with the analysis of a cytometric file: notions on the different gating methods; off-line fluorescence compensation;
Optimization of necessary controls: isotype control, fluorescence minus one (FMO) and blank; criteria for evaluating positivity; main types of representation of cytometric data.
Flow Cell Sorting: theory and instrumental functioning, examples of applications
Applications of the cytometric platform in biomedical research and diagnostics: evaluation of the cell cycle and cell proliferation; evaluation of apoptosis, necrosis and cell death (outline)
Microparticles in cytofluorimetry; I mention the latest generation tools


Discipline of: "Quality Management Systems"

Manual for Institutional Accreditation of Healthcare Activities of the Liguria Region, pursuant to Presidential Decree 14 January 1997 and of the L.R. July 30, 1999 No. 20.
Decree of the President of the Republic 14/01/1997 (publ. on the ordinary supplement to the Official Gazette n. 42 of 20 February 1997). Approval of the guidance and coordination act for the regions and autonomous provinces of Trento and Bolzano, regarding the minimum structural, technological and organizational requirements for the exercise of healthcare activities by public and private structures.
Joint Commission, Introduction to the Principles of Quality Improvement
ISO UNI EN 9001:2015 standard
Novaco F., Damen V., Clinical risk management, Centro Scientifico Editore
Rasmussen J, Duncan K. & Leplat J., New Technology and human error. 1987

Reason J., Human error; Cambridge University Press. Italian edition: Human error; Publisher Il Mulino, Bologna BMJ 2000


Discipline of: "Cytofluorimetry techniques"

Shapiro H., "Practical Flow Cytometry", Wiley-Liss, New York, 4th Edition

Longobardi Givan A. “Flow Cytometry, first principles”

Bushnell T. and Kissner B.A. "Advanced topics in 4-10 color compensation"

Cytometry (PubMed - US National Library of Medicine National Institute of Health):

  • Part A : the journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
  • Part B : Clinical cytometry

European Journal of Immunology (PubMed - US National Library of Medicine National Institute of Health)




III year, I semester



The exam is exclusively oral for both disciplines of the module; it is possible to request the solution of analysis or design schemes presented to the student on paper, but always at the time of the oral exam. The oral exam will therefore consist of 4 or 5 general questions which will be explored during the test until the teacher obtains a sufficient analysis of the student's preparation.

Extraordinary exam sessions will not be granted outside the periods and dates indicated in the study program regulations, with the exception of extraordinary sessions for students outside the course after a request has been examined by all the professors of the integrated course.


Discipline of: "Quality Management Systems"

The oral exam will mainly focus on the topics covered during the frontal lessons and on the material uploaded on aulaweb. The aim is to evaluate if the student has reached an adequate level of knowledge and if he has acquired the ability to apply the concepts to clinical practice using the appropriate terminology.

Discipline of "Cytofluorimetry techniques"

The oral exam will mainly focus on the topics covered during the lectures and on any visits to the laboratories and will aim to evaluate whether the student has reached an adequate level of knowledge and whether he has acquired the ability to critically analyze problems related to a survey diagnostic or research flow cytometry. The student may also be asked to build a simple analysis panel, identifying some simple cell subtypes. The ability to describe processes clearly and with correct terminology will be positively evaluated.

Agenda 2030 - Sustainable Development Goals

Agenda 2030 - Sustainable Development Goals
Good health and well being
Good health and well being
Quality education
Quality education
Decent work and economic growth
Decent work and economic growth