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CODE 104813
SEMESTER 2° Semester
MODULES Questo insegnamento è un modulo di:


The Technical Plants course deals with plant engineering topics aimed at an in-depth understanding of all issues relating to heating and air conditioning systems, and water-sanitary systems.

The second part of the course is focused on Energy Management, with particular attention to Energy Diagnosis in the civil and industrial fields.



The first part of the course presents the fundamental elements for the knowledge and correct design of HVAC systems. The second part is aimed at training the figure of the energy manager. The issues of energy efficiency, economic analysis, traditional and innovative techniques and diagnosis are dealt with reference to the identification of efficient solutions, their evaluation and planning.


The course allows the students to learn the techniques, the theoretical and applied basis necessary for sizing the main heating and air conditioning systems, the hydraulic networks for the distribution of hot and chilled water and the aeraulic networks for air conditioning. Besides, the course also provides the main information to understand and deepen the regulation methods of the aforementioned systems, to size the thermal and refrigeration plants necessary for the production of hot and refrigerated fluids. In addition, the regulatory aspects relating to the most frequent activities (design, sizing, performance calculation) will be dealt with.

The notions learned during the course will allow the students to be able to tackle civil engineering projects with greater awareness and knowledge of all the significant interferences that normally occur between architectural design and thermotechnical systems.

The second part of the course aims to train an Energy Manager, providing skills to be able to evaluate an investment in the world of energy from a technical and economic point of view, to size a plant for the production of energy from renewable sources, provide technical advice on achieving energy efficiency targets.


There are no prerequisites for accessing the final exam.


Lectures and exercises also with the help of a PC.

The didactic innovation project adopted by the Degree Course in Mechanical Engineering, innovative tools will be used for active student learning. The aim is to increase students' skills through new learning methodologies, from e-learning to team work, through experiences that increase student participation through a higher communicative level and make the student more aware and autonomous.


Wellbeing conditions in confined spaces: thermohygrometric wellbeing; comfort indexes; average radiant and operating temperature.

Calculation of thermal loads in winter; transmittances, thermal bridges, ventilation, intermittent operation, high temperature gradients.

Calculation of thermal loads in summer: response factor method; effective frontal mass, primary and secondary effective mass; average parameters of the environment; simplified method (Thermal load for transmission, Thermal load for internal radiative sources and solar radiation, Thermal loads for ventilation, internal convection and crowding).

Plant solutions for heating systems: centralized water systems with concentrated or extended heating bodies, autonomous water systems, steam systems, air circulation systems. Heating systems: components; regulatory bodies; plant terminals; safety devices; adjustment devices. Evaluation of pressure drops in pipes (distributed and concentrated); balancing of distribution networks.

Air conditioning systems: recall of the thermodynamics of humid air; transformations; construction of the psychrometric chart; sizing of a full-air system in summer conditions. Design of a full-air system in winter conditions. Full-air systems: constant flow (single zone and multizone) and variable flow; mixed air-water systems; direct expansion systems. Sizing of air conditioning systems: air distribution, elements of introduction into the environment, recovery; sizing of air ducts with the constant linear pressure drop method and with the static pressure recovery method.


Traditional boilers and condensing boilers: operating principles, types, safety and regulation systems. Chillers and heat pumps: operating principles, types and plate data, EER and COP, consumption calculation with the BIN method.

Calculation of the performance of an absorption refrigeration system: numerical exercise.

Reference legislative framework for the Energy Certification of Buildings: Directive 2002/91 / EC, DL 192/2005, DL 311/2006, UNI TS 11300 Standards. Calculation of the useful energy for winter heating and summer cooling according to UNI Standards 11300-1. Calculation of the average seasonal overall yield of the plant (UNI 11300-2). Energy performance certificate.

Cost-benefit analysis for energy efficiency: discounting mechanisms; discounted cash flows and net present value; parameters for calculating the NPV; life and evaluation of the investment; interest; Inflation and drift; application: replacement of a heat generator. Internal rate of return; simple and updated turnaround time; profit index; sensitivity analysis, Montecarlo method. Renonbill tool for cost-benefit analysis in a deterministic and statistical regime of investments related to energy efficiency interventions in buildings. Case study tutorial.

Energy diagnosis; the sequence of the execution phases; construction of thermal and electrical models; evaluation of energy indicators; benchmark; energy saving actions; cost-benefit analysis. Example of civil energy diagnosis (Legislative Decree 102/2014): methodology; energy indicators; methods of carrying out; documentation; field measurements; models; energy efficiency interventions.

NPV optimization process of an energy efficiency intervention. Numerical exercise on the optimization of the sizing of a heat exchanger.

Example of energy diagnosis using the MC4 software (UNI EN 16247): energy costs, adjustment factors of billed consumption, analysis of energy services; calculation of energy performance indicators, identify actions to improve energy efficiency, cost-benefit analysis, priority of interventions.


Manuale degli impianti di climatizzazione. Editore: Tecniche Nuove; ISBN-10: ‎ 8848118844,ISBN-13: ‎ 978-8848118842

Manuale del termotecnico. Fondamenti, riscaldamento, condizionamento, refrigerazione, risorse energetiche, Editore: ‎ Hoepli; ISBN-10: ‎ 8820359715, ISBN-13: ‎ 978-8820359713

Energy management. Fondamenti per la valutazione, la pianificazione e il controllo dell'efficienza energetica. Editore: Franco Angeli; EAN: 9788891779403

Diagnosi e certificazione energetica. Editore: Maggioli; ISBN / EAN: 8891642073 / 9788891642073



Class schedule

The timetable for this course is available here: Portale EasyAcademy



The exam consists of an oral interview, preceded by the delivery of the exercises and projects proposed during the course, which are the subject of discussion during the interview.


After passing a preliminary design or written test, oral examination, based on a specific subject among those tackled during the taught course, with in addition a couple of small synthetic questions on other one/two subjects.

The aim of the examination is to assess the capability of solving specific thermal problems (including physical formulation and mathematical passages) and the skill in  discussing and arguing them.