CODE 108701 2024/2025 6 cfu anno 2 INGEGNERIA GESTIONALE 10716 (L-9) - GENOVA FIS/01 Italian GENOVA 1° Semester AULAWEB

## OVERVIEW

`The course is designed for first-year students of "Ingegneria Gestionale". The topics relate to the classical electromagnetism from the electric field to Faraday's law, including the RL circuit. Excluded from the course are oscillating circuits,  AC circuits and electromagnetic waves.`

## AIMS AND CONTENT

### LEARNING OUTCOMES

The course provides an introduction to phenomenology and the mathematical formulation of the laws of classical electromagnetism, mainly considering vacuum problems as well as the scientific-technical methodology necessary to deal with the problems of physics in quantitative terms.

### AIMS AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

The specific training objective is to provide the student with the ability to solve elementary but concrete problems. This implies that the student must know how to distinguish between fundamental concepts (electric and magnetic fields and forces, works, Gauss's laws, Ampere's, Faraday's, ...) and more specific issues (motion of charges in electromagnetic fields, cylindrical condensers, .. .).

### TEACHING METHODS

The course consists on blackboard lectures on the blackboard supported by streaming if needed.

### SYLLABUS/CONTENT

Introduction to the course, recalls (vectors, significant digits, units).

Electrical phenomena. Coulomb's law. Exercise: comparison between electrostatic and gravitational force. Superposition principle.

The electrostatic field for point charge, discrete distribution, continuous distribution. Exercise: electrostatic field of a charged ring. Exercise: electrostatic field of a charged disk, infinite R limit. Electrostatic field of two charged infinite planes. Field lines.

The work of the electrostatic field: potential and potential energy for a point charge, a discrete system and a continuous system of charges. Exercise: potential and potential energy of a system of 3 point charges. Electric field as a gradient of potential. Exercises: potential of a uniform field, undefined parallel charged planes; potential of a charged ring. Potential of the charged disc.

Motion of a charge in an electric field, conservation of energy. Exercises: electron in a uniform field; classic model of the Bohr atom; electrostatic separator.

The electric dipole. V and E. Forces on a dipole immersed in E (uniform). Torque and energy.

Construction of the concept of flow of a vector field with the analogy of fluid physics. Flow of the electrostatic field. Gauss theorem and proof only in the case of spherical surface and point-like charge. Exercises: E and V of a superficial spherical charge distribution; E and V of a uniformly charged sphere; E and V of a uniformly charged cylinder; E and V of an infinite charged plane.

Conductors in equilibrium electrostatic, conductors with cavities, charge inside cavities, electrostatic induction.

Capacitors. Spherical, flat, cylindrical capacitors. Electrostatic energy of a capacitor, energy density. Capacitors in series and in parallel. Dipole oscillating in E.

Classic model for electrical conduction, drift velocity, current density, current. Ohm's law, Joule effect, series and parallel resistors, electromotive force. Kirchhoff's laws, charge and discharge of a condenser.

The magnetic field: empirical observations. Lorentz's force. Particle moving in uniform B, angular velocity. Examples: mass spectrometer; speed selector; cyclotron.

Force on a current-carrying conductor and immersed in B; mechanical torque on a coil.

Magnetic field produced by a current (Laplace's law) and by a moving charge. Applications: rectilinear wire (Biot-Savart law); circular coil. Applications: rectilinear solenoid. Forces between wires covered by current.

Ampère's theorem and demonstration in the case of rectilinear thread. Applications: wire field, rectilinear solenoid and toroidal solenoid.

The flow of B. Solenoidal fields.

Law of Faraday-Neumann-Lenz. Continuous and alternate current generator. Law of Felici.

Self-induction. Inductance of a solenoid, RL circuit, closing overcurrent. Magnetic energy. Mutual induction (outline).

Displacement current. Maxwell equations

P. Mazzoldi, M. Nigro, C. Voci, "Elementi di fisica - elettromagnetismo", EdiSES

D. Halliday, R.Resnick, J.Walker, “Fondamenti di Fisica” II ; Ed. CEA

D. J. Griffiths "Introduction to electrodynamics".

## LESSONS

### LESSONS START

According to the official schedule.

### Class schedule

The timetable for this course is available here: Portale EasyAcademy

## EXAMS

### EXAM DESCRIPTION

The exam will include a written part and an oral part.

The written test involves the resolution of 4 simple problems to be solved in 3 hours.
Students who have obtained a score of at least 16/30 in the written test will be admitted to the oral exam.

The oral exam will evaluate the skills acquired by the students.

### ASSESSMENT METHODS

The written exam will evaluate the ability to: i) interpret the text of the proposed exercise and outline the problem; ii) identify the physical laws involved and the related equations to be applied; iii) quantitatively resolve the exercise; iv) evaluate the reasonableness of the numerical result obtained.
In order to evaluate the written test, the following parameters will be taken into account: the correct setting of the exercise, the correctness of the literal solution obtained, the congruence of the numerical solution obtained.
The oral exam will allow to ascertain the ability to: i) introduce the requested topic with language properties; ii) describe simple applications of the physical laws under consideration.
In order to evaluate the oral exam, the following parameters will be taken into account: the level of understanding of the topic, the quality of the presentation, the correct use of the specialist vocabulary, the capacity for critical reasoning.