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CODE 56971
ACADEMIC YEAR 2024/2025
CREDITS
SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINARY SECTOR CHIM/07
LANGUAGE Italian
TEACHING LOCATION
  • LA SPEZIA
SEMESTER 1° Semester
MODULES Questo insegnamento è un modulo di:
TEACHING MATERIALS AULAWEB

OVERVIEW

Study of chemical and chemical-physical basic of technologies, with particular reference to materials, properties and interaction with the environment, providing a synthesis of common principles of state and transformation of matter.

AIMS AND CONTENT

LEARNING OUTCOMES

This course provides the fundamental chemical knowledge and chemical and physical atomic structure, chemical bonding, thermodynamics and chemical kinetics essential for understanding of the state and the transformation of matter , of natural phenomena and environmental and nature of technological processes .

AIMS AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

The training activities proposed in the form of lectures, exercises and numerical applications, associated to the individual study, will allow the student to:

know the atomic structure;

understand the mechanisms of strong and weak chemical bond formation;

know the structure of solids, liquids and understand the gas state equations;

understand the relationships between electrical, magnetic and mechanical structure and properties;

to know the main thermodynamic and kinetic variables involved in the transformation of matter;

evaluate the conditions of the chemical equilibrium;

determine quantitatively the chemical balances;

understand the fundamental structure-property relationships in the macromolecules;

discuss all the proposed activities with a scientific method and appropriate language.

TEACHING METHODS

Lectures and exercises in the classroom. The assessment of learning and operational skills during the course will take place through the monitoring carried out during the numerical exercises.

The transversal skills in terms of independence of judgment will be acquired through the classroom performance of the exercises to be carried out in a group.

Students who have valid certification of physical or learning disabilities on file with the University and who wish to discuss possible accommodations or other circumstances regarding lectures, coursework and exams, should speak both with the professor of the course  and with Professor Federico Scarpa (federico.scarpa@unige.it ), the Polytechnic School - Engineering's disability liaison.

SYLLABUS/CONTENT

Nature of the matter; Composition of the atom and its stability; matter-energy interactions; Quantization of energy and wave nature of the matter; Schrodinger equation an atomic structure; periodic properties of the elements; valence bond theory and molecular orbitals; band structure theory in the solids; amorphous and crystalline structure of solids; properties of liquids; perfect and imperfect gases; mechanical, electric and magnetic properties.

Fundamentals of the chemical reactivity: first law of thermodynamic; enthalpy in chemical reactions; second law of thermodynamic and spontaneous change; entropy and third law of thermodynamic; spontaneous chemical reaction and Gibbs function; chemical equilibrium; phase diagrams of pure and mixed compounds; rate of reaction and kinetic models; Arrhenius law, transition complex and catalysis. Nomenclature of chemical compounds.

Polymeric materials: introduction to organic chemistry; relations between property and structure of the synthetic polymers (fibers, plastics, elastomers, thermosetting polymers, Tm, Tg, crystallinity, mechanical properties, conductive polymers); liquid crystals; environmental impact of synthetic polymers.

Numerical applications: units; mole; formulas; atomic and molecular weight; chemical reactions; gas laws; concentrations; colligative properties; thermodynamics and thermochemistry; electrochemistry; shift of the chemical equilibrium.

RECOMMENDED READING/BIBLIOGRAPHY

The teaching material used during the lessons will be available in aulaweb, as well as the examples of final tests proposed in previous years with the related solutions. The notes taken during the lessons and the material in the aulaweb are enough for the preparation of the exam, but the following books are suggested as supporting and in-depth texts.

 

Structure of matter and fundamentals of the chemical reactivity

P. Atkins, L. Jones, L. Laverman, Fondamenti di chimica generale, Zanichelli;

Autori vari a cura di M. Speranza, Chimica generale e inorganica, Edi.Ermes;

Autori vari a cura di P. Tagliatesta, Chimica generale e inorganica, Edi-ermes;
R. Chang, Fondamenti di chimica generale, McGrow-Hill;
V. Lorenzelli, Elementi di Chimica per le Facoltà di Ingegneria, Genova, Ed. Univ.;
D.W. Oxtoby, H.P. Gills, A. Campion, Chimica moderna, EdiSES;
R.H. Petrucci, W.S Harwood, F.G. Herring, Chimica generale, Piccin;
M.S. Silberberg, Chimica, McGrow-Hill;

 

Polymeric materials, energy and environment

F. Cavani, G. Centi, M. Di Serio, I. Rossetti, A. Salvini. G. Strukul, Fondamenti di chimica industriale. Materie prime, prodotti, processi, sostenibilità, Ed. Zanichelli

 

Exercises
 

R.A. Michelin, P. Sgarbossa, M. Mozzon, A. Munari, Chimica – test ed esercizi, Ambrosiana;

M. Panizza, G. Cerisola, Esercizi di Chimica per Ingegneria, ECIG.

TEACHERS AND EXAM BOARD

LESSONS

Class schedule

The timetable for this course is available here: Portale EasyAcademy

EXAMS

EXAM DESCRIPTION

The exam includes a written and an oral exam with open questions.

The written test must establish only the minimum level of necessary knowledge for the admission to the next oral exam. This test does not have a numerical evaluation and is based on the solution of 9 questions on the following topics discussed during the exercises and present in the appropriate section available to all the students in Aulaweb:

1) Inorganic nomenclature;

2) Balancing exchange ion reactions;

3) Stoichiometric calculations or numerical application of the perfect gas law;

4) Radiochemistry or representation of the electronic configurations of atoms and molecules or chemical bond;

5) Thermodynamic laws and definitions or calculation of the pH of strong acids and bases;

6) Structure, properties, synthesis of polymers or calculation of the reaction heat;

7) Calculation of the equilibrium constant or composition;

8) Description of a state diagram or description of the relationship between the structure and a property or kinetics and catalysts;

9) Organic nomenclature.

The written test is considered passed with a number of correct answers greater or equal than to 5. 3 appeals will be available in the winter session and 3 in the summer session.

The oral exam is structured on 3 questions of weight 10/30, one for each of the 3 chapters related to: 1) structure of matter; 2) transformation of matter; 3) relationships between structure and properties of materials. In more detail, for each chapter one of the questions listed below will be asked.

Part 1:

Electromagnetic waves and matter; Radioactivity; Bohr atomic model; Quantum numbers and atomic orbitals; MOLCAO method; σ and π bonds; Configurations of diatomic molecules; Hybridization; Delocalized electrons and resonance; Weak interactions and hydrogen bonds; Kinetic theory and gas laws; Metal structures; Band theory and electrical conductivity; Ionic lattices and lattice energy; Defects and surfaces.

Part 2:

First law and enthalpy; Second law and entropy; Free energy; Reaction quotient and equilibrium; Equilibrium constant and temperature; Equilibrium and pressure constant; H2O state diagram; Colligative properties; Raoult's law and distillation; Velocity and collision theory; Kinetic equations; Catalysis.

Part 3:

Polar molecules; n-p doping; Ferroelectricity and piezoelectricity; Magnetic properties; Ellingham diagram; Polymeric structures; Young's modulus in polymers; Molecular weight in polymers; Tactical polymers; Thermal behavior of polymers; Polymerization kinetics; Liquid crystals and silicones.

For each written test passed 2 oral appeals are possible in the same session.

ASSESSMENT METHODS

The exam tests with the student will allow:
evaluate the knowledge of the atomic structure;
verify the understanding of the mechanisms of strong and weak chemical bond formation;
evaluate understanding of the structure of solids, liquids and to understand the gas state equations;
understand the relationships between electrical, magnetic and mechanical structure and properties;
verify the ability to identify the conditions of chemical equilibrium;
verify the knowledge of the kinetics involved in the transformation of matter;
verify the ability in the quantitative evaluation of the chemical equilibriums;

evaluate the fundamental structure-property relationships in the macromolecules;
discuss all the proposed activities with a scientific method and appropriate language.