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CODE 104195
SEMESTER 2° Semester
MODULES Questo insegnamento è un modulo di:



In teaching biomedical biotechnologies, students will learn more about the main production techniques of microorganisms (prokaryotes and eukaryotes) and genetically modified organisms (invertebrates and mammals) for basic research, for the creation of animal disease models and for the production of recombinant proteins for industrial or therapeutic purposes. The principles of gene therapy and modern cellular therapies as well as the principles of 3R applied to animal experimentation and new methods of research to replace animal experimentation will also be explored.


In the teaching of "biomedical biotechnology" students will deepen their knowledge on the main production techniques of microorganisms and genetically modified organisms with insights into the scientific principles underlying the techniques of genetic transformation of the eukaryotic cell (gene targeting) also aimed at gene silencing at the level cellular and animal (e.g. knock out mice). The main techniques for the production of recombinant proteins in prokaryotes (bacteria) and eukaryotes (yeast, insect and mammalian cells) will also be illustrated. Furthermore, a part of the course will be dedicated to providing a more in-depth knowledge of the use of stem cells (embryonic, induced pluripotent and adult) in cell therapies with particular attention to the use in modern clinical protocols of hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells and of the techniques of gene therapy and the main clinical protocols in use around the world. Finally, particular attention will be paid to understanding the principles of the 3Rs in animal experimentation, given the importance that this plays in biomedical research, and to respecting these principles (replacement, reduction refinement) in the experimental design that uses sentient animals. In compliance with these principles, biomedical experimentation techniques will also be illustrated with alternative methods to more advanced animal experimentation such as organoids, 3D cultures, and micro and milli-fluidic systems. The teaching will thus make it possible to introduce students to all the main methods of biomedical and biotechnological research to enable the future researcher to use the appropriate research means for the solution of experimental problems and the creation of new study models for human pathologies. .


The topics of the course will be explored in depth through lectures with extensive discussion of the topics. Furthermore, Educational laboratories will be organized for the in-depth study of molecular and cellular analysis techniques typical of biomedical research.

If possible, a guided visit will be organized to a laboratory/research center/biotechnological company accompanied by the teacher.


For the Biotechnology module, the following topics will be addressed in detail:

New methods of gene cloning: golden gate, biobricks, Gibson assembly.

Production of genetically modified unicellular organisms, techniques and uses.

Production of recombinant proteins in bacteria, yeast and insect and mammalian cells.

Transgenic animals, biotechnological production techniques from invertebrates (C. Elegans, D. melanogaster) to mammals (M. musculus).

Cell therapies with adult stem cells: HSC and MSC

The discovery of iPSCs and their possible uses in the biomedical field

Gene therapy: introduction to the technique, viral and non-viral transfer methods, gene therapy protocols from 1990 to today

Modern genome editing techniques: meganuclease, zinc finger nuclease, TALE nuclease and CRISPR / CAS9 system

The principles of the 3Rs: the limits of animal experimentation and the development of new alternative technologies that are more predictive than the animal model, the production of organoids, dynamic 3D cell systems, micro-fluidics and milli-fluidics, OECD validated alternative tests..


- T. STRACHAN, J. GOODSHIP. P. CHINNERT, Genetica & genomica, Zanichelli, 2016

- T. STRACHAN, A. P. READ, Genetica molecolare umana, Zanichelli, 2012

Selected articles and presentations, used during the lessons, will be available on AulaWeb at the end of each cycle of lessons dedicated to a topic of the program.




Second semester, First week of march 2023

For details consult the following link:

Class schedule

The timetable for this course is available here: Portale EasyAcademy



The exam consists of an interview with the student lasting approximately 20-30 minutes in which the knowledge acquired will be verified. Furthermore, during the classes the student will have to prepare an oral presentation of approximately 10-15 minutes (ppt or pdf) to be illustrated to the teacher, with in-depth analysis of one of the topics addressed in class, through the explanation of a scientific article or a review of free choice of the student.


The knowledge acquired will be assessed by asking the student to discuss and explore in depth with the teacher at least three topics covered during the course, demonstrating that they have understood the topic, the purpose and the biotechnological techniques underlying it. Furthermore, the student must demonstrate that they have acquired the ability to navigate the subject, the correct language skills and the appropriate terminology to discuss the teaching topics also through the oral presentation with the production of a Powerpoint of a topic chosen from those covered during the course.

Students in possess of a valid certification of physical or learning disabilities deposited already sent to the University, and wishing to discuss possible arrangements or other circumstances regarding lectures, coursework and exams, should speak both with the teacher and with Professor Sara Ferrando ( <> ), the Department’s disability liaison.