|SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINARY SECTOR||CHIM/03|
Introduction to processes for the preparation and modification of functional inorganic materials. Properties of the synthesized materials and their applications.
This course aims at understanding the big role of functional materials in modern technologies and the working methodology in material research through the study of different classes of materials.
At the end of the course, stdents are expected to understand:
- Functionalities of materials used as sensors ans actuators.
- Working principles of different classes of functional materials.
- Main techniques of synthesis of tehse materials.
- Chemical and physical parameters allowing to improve devices performances
Fundamentals of chemistry and physics
Traditional lectures from the teacher and, when possible, seminars given by experts at international level. Students can use material uploaded in Aulaweb. Partecipation to the lecture is strongly recommended.
Course objectives. Definition of functional materials and its relations to smart materials. Trasducers, sensors and actuators. Use of sensors in high technological devices (e.g. smartphones). MEMS. Synthesis methods for amorphous and crystalline materials. Solid-state reaction. Mechanochemical synthesis. Ceramic synthesis. Sintering Process. Combustion synthesis. Intercalation reactions. Formation of solids from solutions and melts: sol-gel processes and precursors. Hydrothermal synthesis. Intercalation reactions. Layered host lattice, different charged layers and stages. Grafting reactions. Pillaring reactions. Intercalation compounds: graphite layered, metallic dichalcogenides. Hydrotalcite like-compounds. Nanostructured materials. Single crystals growing in functional materials. p-n junction. Diode Examples of application of p-n junctions. Semiconductor materials list. Methods for single crystal production of semiconductors: Czochralski process, Float-zone growing, Bridgman technique. Wafer production of Si -p and –n doped. Thin-film deposition techniques. Classification of thin-film deposition technology. Physical vapor deposition and chemical vapor deposition. Examples of use in different fields. Evaporation step. Knudsen number. Step coverage. Deposition steps. Epitaxy. Fractional mismatch. Substrates for epitaxy. Heteroepitaxy of semiconductors. Epitaxy techniques (LPE, VPE, MBE, MOCVD). Energy beams: electron beams, cathodic and anodic arc, pulsed beams, ion-beams sputtering. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and comparison with PVD. Gas transport, reactors and typical overall reactions used in CVD. Precursors. Case exemplary study: Deposition of SiO2.
Examples of functional materials
LED (Light emitting diodes). From IR-LEDs to visible LEDS. Case exemplary study: more than 30 years in order to obtain efficient blue LED. Thermoelectric materials. Seebeck and Peltier effects. . Figure of merit zT. Thermoelectric modules. Phonon-glass electron crystal (PGEC). Applications. Shape memory alloys (SMA). Martensitic transformation. Shape memory effect. Superelasticity. Applications. Piezoelectrics. Piezoelectricity and crystal symmetry. Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and other perovskitic materials. Applications. Rechargeable Lithium ion batterie and Supercapacitors. Energy storage: batteries vs supercapacitors. Roching Chair of Li-ion. Choice of electrodes. Supercapacitors and materials of choice.
Inorganic materials, D.W.Bruce, D.O’Hare, J.Wiley&Sons, 1997
Synthesis of Inorganic Materials, U.Schubert, N.Hüsing, Wiley-VCH, 2012
Introduzione alla chimica dei materiali, G.Flor, C. Tealdi, Dispenseonline, Pavia, 2009
Basic Solid State Chemistry, A.R.West, Wiley-VCH, 1984
Solid State chemistry, Anthony R. West, J. Wiley e Sons 1990
All class schedules are posted on the EasyAcademy portal.
Exams will consist of a written and an oral examinations. Oral examinations will last at least 40 minutes.
Both examinations (the oral examination lasting at least 40 minutes) allow to check accurately the achievement of the educational goals of the course.