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POLYMER SCIENCE PRINCIPLES

CODE 98597
ACADEMIC YEAR 2022/2023
CREDITS
  • 5 cfu during the 2nd year of 9017 SCIENZA E INGEGNERIA DEI MATERIALI (LM-53) - GENOVA
  • 5 cfu during the 2nd year of 9020 CHIMICA INDUSTRIALE (LM-71) - GENOVA
  • 5 cfu during the 1st year of 11430 SCIENZA E TECNOLOGIA DEI MATERIALI (LM SC.MAT.) - GENOVA
  • SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINARY SECTOR CHIM/04
    TEACHING LOCATION
  • GENOVA
  • SEMESTER 1° Semester
    TEACHING MATERIALS AULAWEB

    OVERVIEW

    Principles of Polymer Science (98597) is a 5 CFU class held in the first semester of the 2nd year in the INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY Master Course. This  class is also adopted by Material Science and Engineering Master. Lessons are usually held in italian.

    This class provide the fundamental knowledge on polymer materials both in solutions and solid state.

    AIMS AND CONTENT

    LEARNING OUTCOMES

    Aim of the course is to provide basic knowledge of the physical chemical porperties of polymer materials. In particulare the understanding of structure-proiperty relations of macromolecules through the characterization of molecular size, chain microstructure, and in general properties of the material in solution and in the solid state. 

    AIMS AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

    Aim of this cours eis to provide fundamentals for the study of macromolecules in solution and solid state, both amorphous and crystalline. Physical chemical properties of polymer materials are discussed as well as structure.properrty relations by characterization of molecular size, chain microstructure, material properties both in solution and solid state.

    At the end of the course, students are expected to know:

    - The macromolecule concept and to be able to discuss the distribution of molecular weight and the meaning of the different mass averages;

    - Thermodynamics principles governing macromolecules in solution with particular emphasys for the Flory-Huggins and di Flory-Krigbaum models, Theta temperature as well as the phase equilibria;

    - The characteristics of the main techniques used to characterize macromolecular masses;

    - To describe and discuss on the size and structure of the polymer chains and to correlate them on solution properties;

    - Macromolecular properties in the (semi)crystalline state, melting (Tm), morphology, kinetic crystallization, and connections with thermodynamic parameters;

    - Properties of macromolecules in the amorphous state, viscoelestic behaviour, glass transition temeperature and the dependence on the molecular mass. 

    PREREQUISITES

    None for students from master students in Industrial Chemistry, Material Science and Engineering and equivalents masters

    Students from different masters courses must show to possess a basic knowledge of polymer chemistry

    TEACHING METHODS

    Front lessons by using powerpoint presentations (avilable to students through AulaWeb) and by videos. Specific Web site surfing, simple numerical simulations.

    SYLLABUS/CONTENT

    1)   INTRODUCTION and COURSE PERSPECTIVE

    1. The Macromolecule consept
    2. Basic definition (monomer, polymer, copolymer,….)
    3. Molecular Masses
    4. Size and Shape
    5. Configurations
    6. Glass transition and melting temperatures

    2) POLYMER SOLUTIONS

    1. Thermodynamics of polymer solutions
    2. Ideal mixtures of small molecules
    3. Non-ideal  solutions
    4. The Flory-Huggins theory
    5. Mixing hentalpy
    6. Free-energy mixing
    7. Osmotic pressure
    8. Limitations to Flory-Huggins model
    9. Phase equilibria
    10. Fractioning
    11. Flory-Krigbaum Theory
    12. Tetha temperature
    13. Solution critical temperature
    14. Solubility
    15. Polymeri mixtures

    3) POLYMER CHARACTERIZATION - MOLECULAR MASSES

    1. Mn: ebullioscopy and cryoscopy, osmotic pressure, vapor pressur eosmosys
    2. Mw (Mz): Light scattering, refractive index change, small angle X-rayscattering, viscosity, GPC, MALDI

    4) POLYMER CHARACTERIZATION – CHAIN SIZE AND STRUCTURE

    1. Chain average size
    2. Freely Jointed Chain Model
    3. Short chain interactions and chain stiffness
    4. Treatment of Dilute Solution Data
    5. NMR
    6. IR
    7. Thermal Analysis
    8. X-ray Scattering

    5) THE CRYSTALLINE STATE

    1. Introduction
    2. Crystallization mechanismo
    3. temperature- and growth-rate
    4. Fusion
    5. Thermodynamical parametrs
    6. Crystalline Arrangement of Polymers
    7. Morphology and Kinetics
    8. Special Macromolecules (block copoliyers, liquid crystals,...)

    6) THE AMORPHOUS STATE

    1. The Amorphous State
    2. The Glassy State
    3. Relaxation Processes in the Glassy State
    4. Glass Transition Region, the Glass Transition Temperature
    5. Tg determination
    6. Chain Flexibility
    7. Steric Effects
    8. Configurational Effects
    9. Effect of Cross-Links on Tg
    10. Theoretical Treatments
    11. The Free-Volume Theory
    12. Gibbs–Di Marzio Thermodynamic Theory
    13. Adam–Gibbs Theory
    14. Dependence of Tg on Molar Mass
    15. Structural Relaxation and Physical Aging

    RECOMMENDED READING/BIBLIOGRAPHY

    I.M.G. Cowie, “Polymers: Chemistry & Physics of Modern Materials”, Blakie and Son Ltd, Glasgow (1991).

    S. Koltzenburg, M. Maskos, O. Nuyken, “Polymer Chemistry”, Springer-Verlag Berlin-Heidelberg (2017).

    M. Guaita, F. Ciardelli, F. La Mantia, E. Pedemonte, “Fondamenti di Scienza dei Polimeri”, Edizioni Nuova Cultura, Roma 2006

    P. Flory “Principles of Polymer Chemistry”, Cornell University Press, Itacha 1953

    U.W. Gedde, “POLYMER PHYSICS”, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht 2001

    W.D. Callister Jr. and I.D.G. Rethwisch, “Materials Science and Engineering”, J. Wiley and Sons, Hoboken (NJ) (2015)

    TEACHERS AND EXAM BOARD

    Exam Board

    DAVIDE COMORETTO (President)

    MAILA CASTELLANO

    MARINA ALLOISIO (Substitute)

    DARIO CAVALLO (Substitute)

    PAOLA LOVA (Substitute)

    ORIETTA MONTICELLI (Substitute)

    SILVIA VICINI (Substitute)

    LESSONS

    LESSONS START

    SINCE IT IS IMPOSSIBLE TO PROVIDE A DEFINITIVE LESSON SCHEDULE NOW DUE TO THE COVID EMERGENCY AND PROVISIONS RELEASED BY UNIGE CONCERNING THE TEACHING ACTIVITY IN PHASE 3, WE STRONGLY RECCOMMEND THAT STUDENTS FREQUENTLY VISIT THE FOLLOWING WEBSITES FOR AN UPDATE https://corsi.unige.it/9020/p/studenti-orario; https://chimica.unige.it/node/390

    Class schedule

    All class schedules are posted on the EasyAcademy portal.

    EXAMS

    EXAM DESCRIPTION

    Oral exam held by two professors, one of them being D. Comoretto. The duration of the exam is no shorter than 30 minutes.

    The student discusses experimental data, plots, figures, or equations provided by the teacher and widely discussed during lessons.

    The student must show to have understood chemical and physical chemical fundamentals of macromolecule;  He/She must also use  the suitable technical language (up to 20/30 points). Moreover, students have to be able to answer questions and concerns rised during the exam on the class topics (up to 10/30 punti).

    ASSESSMENT METHODS

    Goal of the exam is to verify the achievement of the class aims. If aims are not achived, the student is invited to make a deeper study and to ask the teacher for additional explainations before repeating the exam. In order to guarantee the correspondence between aims and exam topics, the detailed program is uploaded to aulaweb and decribed at the beginning of the course.

    Exam schedule

    Date Time Location Type Notes
    07/02/2023 10:00 GENOVA Orale
    21/02/2023 10:00 GENOVA Orale
    14/04/2023 10:00 GENOVA Orale
    16/06/2023 10:00 GENOVA Orale
    30/06/2023 10:00 GENOVA Orale
    14/07/2023 10:00 GENOVA Orale
    28/07/2023 10:00 GENOVA Orale
    15/09/2023 10:00 GENOVA Orale
    29/09/2023 10:00 GENOVA Orale
    13/10/2023 10:00 GENOVA Orale

    FURTHER INFORMATION

    For any other information, studentes are invited to directly contact the teacher by email (davide.comoretto@unige.it), telephone (0103538736/8744) or visiting him in his office/lab.