|SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINARY SECTOR||CHIM/04|
66402 - Chemistry and Technology of Catalysis + Laboratory (CTCATAL, 6 CFU), second semester, years: 1° CI.
The course deals with various aspects of heterogeneous catalysis. The course deals with the preparation and characterization of heterogeneous catalysts, kinetic performance and the influence of phenomena that limit the overall reaction rate. The approach is pragmatic and oriented to industrial applications.
Knowledge of the main membrane preparation methods as well as of the parameters that control the mechanism of membrane formation. Knowledge of the main membrane characterization techniques.
At the end of the course the student will have to know the main methods of preparation and characterization of catalysts and be able to evaluate the influence of mass transfer phenomena on the reaction rate of heterogeneous catalytic reactions. Moreover during the laboratory activity the student will have to learn to work in a team and to collaborate in drawing up reports on the activities carried out in the laboratory.
Fundamentals of chemical thermodynamics and kinetics.
- Lectures (32 hours)
- Laboratory experiences (mandatory attendance) (26 hours). For each experience the student should write a short report and whitin the end of the course two full reports dealing with two experiences should be delivered by each working group as agreed with the teacher.
Introduction: Fundamentals e background of catalysis: Catalysts, thermodynamic equilibrium, reaction rate, activation energy and Arrhenius equation, industrial reactors. Industrial catalysts: Homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts. Heterogeneous catalysts: redox catalysts, catalysts for gas and liquid phase oxidations, hydrogenation and dehydrogenation catalysts, acid-base catalysts, multifuctional catalysts. Examples of catalysis applied to the development of ecosustainable processes or in the pollutant control. Methods of catalysts preparation: Support and properties. Synthesis of supports and of bulk catalysts. Precipitation, sol-gel, hydrothermal synthesis, stabilization, shaping. Zeolite synthesis. Synthesis of Raney Catalysts. Scale-up of catalysts preparation. Preparation of supported catalysts, methods of deposition and support selection. Impregnation with and without interaction (incipient wetness, homogeneous precipitation, ion exchange, adsorption) Catalyst characterization: techniques of characterization: morphology and physical characteristics, bulk and surface characterizations, technological properties. Low temperature vapour adsorption and physi-adsorption, Hg intrusion porometry, microscopy, spectroscopic techniques, programmed temperature techniques (TPD, TPR, TPO, TG, DSC, DTA). Assessment of dispersed active sites by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) or chemi-sorption. Experimental procedures to assess the catalytic activity. Reaction regimes and mass transport regimes in heterogeneous catalysis. Laboratory activities and examples: Synthesis of mesoporous alumina and evaluation of its zero charge point. Preparation of a supported catalyst: impregnation kinetics and dispersion. Characterization by electron microscopy (SEM, TEM) and physi-adsorption. Analysis of gas-solid catalytic systems: reactors, experimental methods for limiting conditions. Experimental planning for kinetic measurements, material balances e data acquisition. TON calculation and interpretation. Inter-phase and intra-particle gradients. Gas-liquid-solid catalytic systems. TOF and activation energy calculation and interpretation.
D. Murzin, Engineering Catalysis. De Gruyter, Berlin, Boston, 2013
D. Sanfilippo (ed.), The Catalytic Process from Laboratory to the Industrial Plant, Maraschi, Milano, 1994.
G. Bellussi (ed.), Material design for catalytic application, Maraschi, Milano, 1996
J.M.Thomas, W.J. Thomas, Principles and Practice of Heterogeneous Catalysis, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, 1996
R.J. Wijngaarden, A. Kronberg, K.R. Westerterp, Industrial catalysis: optimizing catalysts and processes, Wiley-VCH, 1998
F. Cavani et al., Fondamenti di Chimica Industriale, Zanichelli, 2022. Chapter 2 on Principi della Chimica Industriale pagg. 15-95 (It is in Italian)
Supplementary material is provided on request to working students or students with Learning difficulty (DSA) to meet specific needs.
The course is foreseen to start in the II semetser of teh academic year starting on 28/02/2022
Oral + reports on the laboratory experiences. The discussion during the oral examination initially will begin from the laboratory experiences
Grading System: Final oral exam: 60%; Laboratory reports: 40%
The commission is composed of two components and one of them is the teacher of the course. The duration of the examination is not less than 30 min. In this way the commission is able to verify the achievement of the learning outcomes. The student should know the main methods of preparation and characterization of catalysts and be able to interpret the influence of mass transfer phenomena on the reaction speed of heterogeneous catalytic reactions both from a theoretical basis and from the laboratory experiences. If the learning outcomes will be not achieved the student is invited to study again and better following some teacher suggestions and explanations.
For students with disabilities or with Learning Disability (DSA), the examination methods are consistent with the University regulations for the conduct of the exams (https://unige.it/disabilita-dsa).