|SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINARY SECTOR||ICAR/06|
You can take the exam for this unit if you passed the following exam(s):
The course provides the basic tools needed for the spatial knowledge of the territory, through main survey methods for the local area, the reference systems and the technical maps. Statistical methods provide the basis to check the campaigns' quality and to analise the obtained results. The course provides an educational approach to engineering issues in a broad sense.
The course aims to provide the basic tools necessary for spatial knowledge of the territory by introducing the student to the so-called topographic issues expressed in the local area such as, for example, detailed surveys and positioning of technological networks, to be carried out with traditional techniques and GPS / GNSS, in order to provide a first direct contact with the operational reality. The different phases dealt with, ranging from the design and execution of the survey, to its elaboration and cartographic representation, are completed by the application of statistical tools necessary for the critical analysis of the measurement campaigns carried out. The course represents a training approach to engineering issues in a broad sense, starting from the organizational aspects to arrive at the interpretative ones of the results obtained.
The course provides the basic tools of land surveying in the local area and the treatment of observations for analysis and control of the measuring campaigns carried out.
Basic concepts for any survey procedure, such as the reference frame and the cartography where insert our local survey.
Elements of observations processing provide the basis to control the entire survey procedure, identifying measurement schemes more appropriate in accordance with the required precision.
The course has a training approach to engineering issues in a broad sense, from the organizational aspects to the results interpretation.
Lectures (40 hours) and practice (20 hours) related to the campaign survey, to the calculation and framing in the cartography.
The instrumental and numerical exercises are particularly useful in learning instrumental operating practices discussed in class, to the processing of measurement campaigns and to the acquisition of the necessary sensitivity for its analysis. Both exercises are needed to compile the technical report that is preparatory for the written tests and is an integral part of the oral exam.
The course is held in Italian but they are available bibliographic references in English; the technical report and the examination can be conducted in English.
Working students and students with certified SLD (Specific Learning Disorders), disability or other special educational needs are advised to contact the teacher at the beginning of the course to agree on teaching and examination arrangements so to take into account individual learning patterns, while respecting the teaching objectives.
Main methods of survey available today: analysis and characteristics (advantages and limitations) of the main methods of detection, i.e. traditional, satellite GNSS/GPS, photogrammetry, remote sensing and laser scanning.
Reference and coordinate systems: need of the reference systems, definitions, types of orientation and possible realizations with particular attention to the reference systems of main interest in Italy; models and issues in the transformations between different coordinate and reference systems.
Traditional survey methodologies
Optical level: observable, component parts and grinding conditions, check and possible set up of the instrument. Operating modes and main effects on the geometric leveling measurements from the middle and mutual.
Total Station: observable (azimuth directions, azimuth angles, azimuth, zenith angles), component parts and grinding conditions, check and possible set up of the instrument. Operating modes and main effects on the measurements of azimuth and zenith angles' directions, distance measurement (traditional and electronic way), with observable and operating principles, operating methods.
Satellite GNSS/GPS survey methodology: system overview and principles of operation, description of the signal, observable and equations of observation, planning of a survey campaign, survey methods with an introduction to the post processing, to the principles of the so-called Network Real Time Kinematic (NRTK), insertion of a survey in a reference system and in cartography.
Elements of observations processing: concepts of errors, statistical and random variables, the concept of average, variance and their descriptive meaning. Transformation of random variables: the approximate transformation of the mean and variance for variables to more dimensions, linear or not. Concepts of redundancy of measurements and their compensation using least squares estimation criterion, reminders of matrix algebra for the solution of linear systems. Applications to the principal topographical problems with numerical exercises.
Techniques of metric survey of territory: main schemes of single and redundant measures for the plano/altimetric survey of territory and initial checks of consistency of the observations; obtainable precisions; main scopes of work and possible approximations.
Elements of cartography: the main cartography projections and their characteristics, the national cartography, the cartography of Liguria region.
The exercises include in field survey experiences with traditional methods (level and total station) and satellite GNSS / GPS real-time (so-called Network Real Time Kinematic). Exercises in the classroom are aimed to acquire the basic tools to assess the quality of the measures, processing the survey campaigns, familiarize yourself with the coordinates and their measurement on existing maps.
Lecture notes and material provided by the teacher to the students (in italian language) using AulaWeb.
Texts for consultation (in English):
Blachut T. J., Chrzanowski A., Saastamoinen J. H.: Urban Surveying and Mapping. Springer – Verlag, 1979, ISBN 978-1-4612-6147-6
Hofmann-Wellenhof B., Lichtenegger H, Collins J.: Global Positioning System - Theory and Practice. Springer&Verlag, Vienna
Leick A.: GPS Satellite Surveying, John Wiley & Sons Inc., New Jersey, USA, ISBN 0-471-05930-7
Mikhail E. M.: Observations and Least Squares. University Press of America, Lanham, MD, 1976.
Office hours: Availability for student reception will be made known during the course of the activities. The course contact person is available to answer questions at times to be agreed with students: cell. 320-4320011 e-mail domenico.sguerso at unige.it
DOMENICO SGUERSO (President)
ALI ALAKBAR KARAKI
BIANCA FEDERICI (President Substitute)
ILARIA FERRANDO (Substitute)
All class schedules are posted on the EasyAcademy portal.
The learning tests will be carried out either by means of self-assessment tools carried out during the course and, at the end of the course, by written (numerical) and an oral test.
The written test will deal generally with 4 exercises, one on compensation using least squares estimation criterion, two on linear application of variance propagation, one on nonlinear variance propagation.
The oral test will consist in a presentation and critical discussion of the technical report, prepared in small groups, on the exercises performed during the course. Moreover the knowledge of theoretical bases, mainly on reference systems, cartography and cartographic projections and survey methodologies.
The written test will verify the ability to interpret a problem to reach its solution, with particular attention to the setting of the procedure, the numerical solution and the level of approximation to be adopted.
The oral test will verify in particular the understanding of the overall geomatic approach and the capacity for critical sense to be applied to the technical report they have prepared and presented.