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CODE 72563
SEMESTER 1° Semester
Propedeuticità in ingresso
Per sostenere l'esame di questo insegnamento è necessario aver sostenuto i seguenti esami:


Metallic materials are an integral part of our daily lives and represent a significant achievement resulting from millennia of research and development in various fields of knowledge and technology. This is why Metallurgy classes encompass diverse disciplines, such as archaeology, engineering, chemistry, and materials science. The course begins by exploring the journey that led us to the current state of metallurgy, and concludes with a focus on modern iron metallurgy. To provide a comprehensive understanding of the topic, it is recommended to combine this teaching course with Non-ferrous metals and Metallurgy 2, which offer a more exhaustive overview.




The course aims to provide fundamental concepts in metallurgy, including the production and processing of metallic materials. It focuses on developing knowledge regarding the principles of selecting and manufacturing metallic materials for various industrial applications. Additionally, the course covers essential metallographic investigation techniques. Students will gain the ability to identify and analyze the microstructures of steels and metal alloys at different stages of industrial production and transformation, and understand their correlation with the material properties in practical use.


The course aims to provide an understanding of how to establish correlations between the properties of metals, their chemical composition, and their thermomechanical history. Special emphasis is placed on iron-based alloys, including carbon steel and cast iron, which are discussed in greater detail with practical examples.


While not mandatory, it is suggested to have a basic knowledge of Inorganic Chemistry, binary phase diagrams, lattice principles, and chemical bonds to fully benefit from the course.

The classes are organized at different levels of complexity to accommodate students with diverse backgrounds and prior experiences, thereby facilitating the learning process.


The majority of classes are conducted in the classroom using slides and supplemented by expert seminars. These sessions provide theoretical knowledge and in-depth understanding of the subject matter.

In addition, laboratory activities are scheduled as the final lessons in the metallurgy laboratory at the DCCI. These practical sessions aim to familiarize students with the manufacturing and shaping processes of face-centered cubic (FCC) alloys. Through hands-on experience, students gain practical skills and insights into working with FCC alloys.


The course covers the historical significance of metals in human civilization, exploring their discovery and subsequent usage. It delves into the reasons behind the widespread use of metals and examines their main applications, highlighting achievements and future perspectives.

A closer examination is provided on metal bonds and lattices, including the face-centered cubic (FCC), body-centered cubic (BCC), and hexagonal close-packed (HCP) structures. The fundamentals of crystallography are introduced, along with a discussion on defects such as punctual, linear, and volumetric defects. The relationship between lattice defects and diffusion is explored, including an overview of Fick's laws. The impact of defects on plastic deformation is examined, with topics including Burger's vector, Frank-Read sources, Cottrell atmospheres, and dislocation mobility. Additionally, the interaction between dislocations and inclusions, grain boundaries, precipitates, and second phases is discussed.

The course also covers various methods for the characterization of metallic materials, including optical metallography (sampling, polishing, etching, observation), electron microscopy, chemical analysis (SEM, EDXS), mechanical tests (stress-strain, hardness, toughness), fatigue, creep, and the concept of the fragile-ductile transition temperature. The importance of critical shear stress is emphasized. Strengthening methods such as alloying, hardening, and thermal treatment are explored, along with an introduction to solid solutions, intermetallic phases, compounds, eutectic and peritectic reactions, and phase diagrams. The transition from molten to solid state for pure metals and alloys is examined, along with the concepts of micro- and macro-segregation. Further topics include primary etching, the Fe-C phase diagram, carbon steel, and cast iron. The course also provides an overview of Bain curves, CCC curves, thermal treatments in the gamma field (annealing, normalizing, quenching), treatments in the alpha field (recrystallization annealing, recovery, tempering), and an introduction to quenchability measurements (Jominy). Finally, thermo-chemical surface treatments and practical metallography are introduced.


Daniel A. Brandt, Metallurgy Fundamentals, Goodheart-Willcox; Sixth Edition, Textbook (October 9, 2019)

A. Cigada, T. Pastore, Struttura e proprietà dei materiali metallici, McGraw-Hill,

W. Nicodemi, Metallurgia, Zanichelli

R. E. Smallman and A. H.W. Ngan, Physical Metallurgy and Advanced Materials, Butterworth-Heinemann, 2007

In case the student autonomously individuate a book the teachers are available for its evaluation before to proceed with the purchase


Exam Board


ROBERTO SPOTORNO (President Substitute)



From October 11, 2023 

Class schedule

L'orario di tutti gli insegnamenti è consultabile all'indirizzo EasyAcademy.



Oral with daily sessions of 12 students. 

The ora exam corresponds to three questions, each answer maximum grade il 10, the sum of the three results makes the final grade 

For those students belonging to differeing graduation or degree courses with a number of CFU (ECTS) other than those originally attributed to this course the exam will be planned accordingly


Three main topics: 1) General metallurgy (metallic bond, solidification, phase diagrams, solid state transformations, Fe-C diagram, microstructural features at the equilibrium); 2) Practical metallurgy (out of equilibrium diagrams, thermal treatments on steels, mechanical treatments, surface modifiations); 3) Characterization (metallography, mechanical tests)

For those students belonging to differeing graduation or degree courses with a number of CFU (ECTS) other than those originally attributed to this course the exam will be only focused on topics treated during the face to face classes while all the laboratory activities will be set apart.


Exam schedule

Data Ora Luogo Degree type Note
31/01/2024 09:30 GENOVA Orale
13/02/2024 09:30 GENOVA Orale
18/06/2024 09:30 GENOVA Orale
10/07/2024 09:30 GENOVA Orale
11/09/2024 09:30 GENOVA Orale


The notations are from 18 to 30 on 30 . The special mention (con lode) is attributed when the whole exam is considered outstanding. 

Agenda 2030 - Sustainable Development Goals

Agenda 2030 - Sustainable Development Goals
Responbile consumption and production
Responbile consumption and production
Partnerships for the goals
Partnerships for the goals