The majority of the exams consists in an oral discussion, during which the student replies to questions and typically presents the argument and demonstrates the theory which is behind a given result, expression, formula, principle. The arguments are among those discussed during the lectures and included in course syllabus. In other cases the exam consists in a written test, on open or close questions, and typically requires the solution of an engineering problem. Duration of the exam ranges typically from 30 minutes to 60 minutes (written examinations). The aim of the examination is to assess a proper knowledge by the student on the related course topics. In case of failure, the student is invited to further study the arguments and pass to the following Exam sessions. The criteria for the composition of the final mark in case of modular exams (i.e. a given course is made of two teaching modules) or written plus oral examinations is provided by the Professor in charge at the beginning at the teaching period. The final positive mark ranges from 18 to 30. In outstanding conditions the final mark can reach the top value of '30 cum Laude'.